Housing pathways

Clapham (2002, p. 63) defines housing pathways as ‘patterns of interaction (practices) concerning house and home, over time and space’. In opposition to what he refers to as positivist housing studies, the pathway approach does not assume that ‘households have a universal set of preferences and act rationally in their attempts to meet them’ (2005: 29).

Clapham proposes to integrate perspectives on housing careers (Dieleman 2001; Kendig 1984) with Giddens (1991) structuration theory. He argues that the term ‘housing pathway’ is preferable to that of ‘housing career’.

Grouping (Gestalt)

Gestalt Principles of Grouping

The German word “Gestalt” roughly translates to “whole” or “form,” and the Gestalt psychologist’s sincerely believed that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.  In order to interpret what we receive through our senses, they theorized that we attempt to organize this information into certain groups.  This allows us to interpret the information completely without unneeded repetition.  

For example, when you see one dot, you perceive it as such, but when you see five dots together, you group them together by saying a “row of dots.”  Without this tendency to group our perceptions, that same row would be seen as “dot, dot, dot, dot, dot,” taking both longer to process and reducing our perceptive ability.  The Gestalt principles of grouping include four types: similarity, proximity, continuity, and closure.

Similarity refers to our tendency to group things together based upon how similar to each other they are.  In the first figure above, we tend to see two rows of red dots and two rows of black dots.  The dots are grouped according to similar color.

In the next figure, we tend to perceive three columns of two lines each rather than six different lines.  The lines are grouped together because of how close they are to each other, or their proximity to one another.  Continuity refers to our tendency to see patterns and therefore perceive things as belonging together if they form some type of continuous pattern.  In the third figure, although merely a series of dots, it begins to look like an “X” as we perceive the upper left side as continuing all the way to the lower right and the lower left all the way to the upper right.  

Closure finally, in the fourth figure, we demonstrate closure, or our tendency to complete familiar objects that have gaps in them.  Even at first glance, we perceive a circle and a square.


Creative placemaking

The term Creative placemaking is often misused within theplacemaking sector, to use the process with just any sort of arts component in it. On a policy level, the arts are misused to serve economic ends.

“In creative placemaking, partners from public, private, non-profit, and community sectors strategically shape the physical and social character of a neighbourhood, town, city, or region around arts and cultural activities. Creativeplacemaking animates public and private spaces, rejuvenates structures and streetscapes, improves local businesses viability and public safety, and brings diverse people together to celebrate, inspire and be inspired” Markusen and Gadwa; 2010


Objecten binnen een ruimte, bepalen voor een deel de relatie tot de ruimte en tot elkaar, via design-eigenschappen, door context, gebruik, materiaal en designkenmerken.  Objecten dwingen een bepaald gebruik of gedrag af over zichzelf in relatie tot een ander object, persoon of de kamer. Zo’n “pairing-relationship” bestaat bijvoorbeeld tussen de eettafel en de stoelen en ook tussen de bank en de televisie.

Zie ook: Affordance


Een relatie tussen een object of omgeving en een organisme, die voor het organisme de kans tot een actie faciliteert. De affordance van een plat vlak is bijvoorbeeld dat het uitnodigd tot het uitoefenen van een bepaald soort druk met de vlakke hand, duwen, slaan. Een deurknop heeft als affordance, dat het zich leent om er aan te trekken.

” (…) The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill.  (…) It implies the complementarity of the animal and the environment. … If a terrestrial surface is nearly horizontal (instead of slanted), nearly flat (instead of convex or concave), and sufficiently extended (relative to the size of the animal) and if its substance is rigid (relative to the weight of the animal), then the surface affords support. (…) “

” (…) The polarity of affordances was also indicated by Gibson. Positive affordances are potentially beneficial to the user, while negative affordances are potentially harmful. Any part of the environment may also possess a multiplicity of affordances. For instance, water affords drinking, pouring, washing, and bathing. According to Maier and Fadel (2009a) even if an environmental feature possesses an affordance, there is still room to describe how well this feature affords a specific use in terms of quality. Some seats afford sitting on better than others. (…) “

Het tegenovergestelde van een affordance in design, is het begrip constraint.


Placemaking kent momenteel een opleving. Men is zich meer bewust van het plaatselijke ten opzichte van het grote overkoepelende. Steden veranderen snel, ook in Europa. Publieke ruimten- en ruimten van het publiek -ze vragen en veroorzaken een gemeenschappelijk gevoel van herkenbaarheid, veiligheid, groepsgevoel en onderlinge connecties. Het veroorzaakt beweging in de stad, niet alleen van mensen maar ook van geschakelde netwerken, via pleinen, via de winkelstraat, via grensgebieden naar de buitenstad. Placemaking faciliteert het ontstaan van creatieve patronen van activiteiten en connecties, op alle vlakken.

Cities are more than just a collection of buildings. The built environment is also shaped through the daily lives, actions and ideas of the people who use it. Designing physical places to enhance the quality of life of people in order to generate happiness, a sense of belonging and identification is the art of placemaking.

(G. Richards)



Draagbare technologie. In de vorm van bijvoorbeeld armbanden, ringen, textiel of accessoires. Ook in nieuwe toepassingen als in kunsthuid of tattooages. Ze registreren bijvoorbeeld de lichaamsfuncties van de drager of gebruiken de sensors van mobiele appparaten.


The art and science of applying scientific and common knowledge and techniques to the conception, generation and narration of stories