Wayfinding

 Geenszins een compleet overzicht van de literatuur, maar wel een verloop van het begrip wayfinding waar een belangrijke plaats blijft ingeruimd voor het oerbegrip van wayfinding. Nog altijd weten we nl. niet precies hoe en waarom we reageren en navigeren. Bijvoorbeeld het verschijnsel van gelijkmatig aangespannen beenspieren, wanneer men met een groep (onder bepaalde omstandigheden) langere tijd loopt. 

(Wikipedia) encompasses all of the ways in which people and animals orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place. (…)

Historically, wayfinding refers to the techniques used by travelers over land and sea to find relatively unmarked and often mislabeled routes. (…) Wayfinding can also refer to the traditional navigation method used by indigenous peoples of Polynesia. (…) With these skills, some of them were even able to navigate the ocean as well as they could navigate their own land. (…) Wayfinding was a way of life.

Recently, wayfinding has been used in the context of architecture to refer to the user experience of orientation and choosing a path within the built environment. It can also refer to the set of architectural or design elements that aid orientation. (…)

Urban planner Kevin A. Lynch borrowed the term for his 1960 book The Image of the City, where he defined wayfinding as “a consistent use and organization of definite sensory cues from the external environment.”

In 1984 environmental psychologist Romedi Passini published the full-length “Wayfinding in Architecture” and expanded the concept to include signage and other graphic communication, clues inherent in the building’s spatial grammar, logical space planning, audible communication, tactile elements, and provisions for special-needs users.

Wayfinding—the ability to find one’s way through and around objects in a cluttered environment. The subtasks of wayfinding are to discern one’s instantaneous course, or aimpoint’, and to negotiate clutter, while maintaining ade- quate velocity. We concentrate on the first subtask. How accurate must aimpoint determination be? To answer this question it seems best to consider a situation plausibly con- nected to the constraints under which we evolved. – (Cutting; 1994) –

Successful wayfinding occurs when the navigator can make correct navigation decisions that take him from his present location to a destination that fulfills his larger purpose. Examples of such decisions are whether to continue along the present route or to backtrack, what turn to take at an intersection of paths, or whether to stop and aquire information from the environment to confirm the present route. Arthur and Passini call wayfinding spatial problem solving [Arthur and Passini, 1992], in which the navigator finds a satisfactory solution to a larger task through navigation.